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tv   The Five Cities of June 1963  CSPAN  July 4, 2015 8:00am-8:31am EDT

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>> lucy hayes was the first first lady to earn a college degree. during the civil war, soldiers serving under her husband called her the mother of the regiment. opposing slavery she influences her husband rutherford b raise to switch from the whig party to the anti-slavery party. she hosts the first annual easter egg roll at the white house. 8:00 p.m. eastern. examining the women who were first ladies from martha washington to michelle obama on american history tv on c-span3. >> you are watching american history tv. 48 hours of programming on american history every weekend on c-span3. follow us on twitter for information on our schedule of upcoming programs and to keep up with the latest history news.
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>> each week "reel america" brings you archival films for historical context on public policy issues of the 20th century. the five cities of june is the u.s. information agency film documenting historic event around the world in 1963 featuring the election and coronation of paul the sixth the launch of the soviet rocket, fighting in south vietnam, the integration of the university of alabama in tuscaloosa, and president kennedy's trip to berlin. the film was nominated for an academy award and was narrated by actor charlton heston. narrator: five cities were silent in may. on the first morning of the following month, they awoke with
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brushes in their hands and a calendar as a canvas. -- as their canvas. when god made the days, man the calendar, and the five cities in made june of 1963. ♪
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4 million people died in the month of june and 9,600,000 people were born. no one knows what names of future history are among those born. of those that died, pope john xxiii. outside st. peter's basilica the masses waited with meditation, tears, and prayers. on june 2, the vigil outside was the vatican was over.
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within the basilica, they the cardinal college gathered for mass. still in great, they had a mission to elect a new man to follow their beloved pope john. ♪
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in the square, the crowds received the signal they were waiting for. from all over rome they gathered to witness a single puff of white smoke. it told the world the election was over. the name was [indiscernible] and the coronation would be on the 30th of june.
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♪ he chose to be called pope paul the sixth, and his life will be spent in the highest service to the 500 million people who serve of his faith.
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♪ >> to the second city in june, foreigners, the press, photographers were not invited.
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the city's name is unknown. it is in the soviet union. here in the continuing race for the moon with the united states of america, the soviet union launched two new cosmonauts. the launchings of june put the soviet union ahead in a race that was not forecast to be over until the end of the decade. ♪
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the history of man in space is short. but the conquests are many. the free press of the world was invited to photograph the launches of the united states. in 1961, the soviet union launched [indiscernible] into an provided this motion picture of the liftoff. the united states launched over shepherd. next in space was gus grissom, photographed by hundreds of international photographers. then the soviet union announced the launch of [indiscernible] and released this film. in 1962, john glenn went into orbit launched from an annapolis atlas booster at cape canaveral. followed three months later in the mercury capsule.
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in august of 1962, [indiscernible] orbited simultaneously launched by two separate boosters from the soviet union. one launched within 24 hours after the other. the united states went next. 1963, gordon cooper went into orbit in his capsule. june in space belonged to the soviet union. the soviet union furnished this film. the second city of june, location unknown, history with two proud names. the third city of june was off
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was off the saigon river in south vietnam. ♪ the village population lived off products that surrounded the river and made use of every available resource to uphold the strong, healthy, happy lives they had known. for so long . their village had existed for centuries and it continued to exist until one night in june. on the night of the 18th communists came to spread their political message.
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they killed the men and burned the village. ♪ south vietnamese soldiers were called in to help save what could be saved, but it was too late. all that was left to do now is was take care of the wounded frightened, and homeless. ♪
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the conquerors had come twice. once by day, as friendly strangers the promises of a new
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life, communal living, more land. then they came by night with promises replaced by flames, smiles replaced by pillaging villager happiness replaced by murder. on the 21st, the army went act to route the communists out. -- wins back towent back to route the communists out. so the soldiers came by rail, by air, by land, and water to win back the remnants. communists from the north were trying to sweep the country. it was just a single step. in the month of june they had attacked 294 places. their forces numbered 22,000.
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attacking isolated villages around the country, guerrilla fighting. there were casualties in this unknown war of june. too many of . too many of them. the communists were outfought, out equipped, and l soldier. -- out soldiered. they surrendered. the ones that got away went on to other villages. south vietnam remained a battlefield. the eyes of the world shifted to the small city of tuscaloosa alabama, within the deep south of the united states of america.
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♪ it was a familiar story. it started before the war between the states 100 years ago, which was fought and won for negro equality. negroes were taken out of slavery and freedom was guaranteed, but barriers were put in front of them especially , from the states that have lost that civil war, the states of the southeast. the constitution of the united states came under debate as to whether it prohibited orrick or acknowledged such barriers. in 1954, it was made clear by the supreme court that the constitution guarantees equality for all. so, the great tests were met. tests that brought mob disorder and violence to the south,
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and they required that all troops to ensure the admittance of negro students into schools reserved for others. the vast majority of the united states was in sympathy with the negro, but some citizens were not. the u.s. government supported the negro, some of the separate state governments did not. and now, the test of tuscaloosa, alabama, the last state of the deep south to resist integration of schools. once again, the . once again, the governor of the southern states said no negro shall be admitted to an otherwise white enrollment. with the entire world as a witness, judge and jury tuscaloosa and history met on , june 11 went to american negroes expressed desire to enroll at the university of alabama. there was a single, defiant man
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holding with strength to the weak morals of the past. with the protection of federal marshals, vivian malone and james wouod entered the university of alabama in tuscaloosa. there was no violence. the governor conceded. the law of the land was enforced by the government to protect to wo citizens. it was invoked so that vivian, james, and anyone else would have the freedom to choose the school they would attend. this was not the end of race problems in the south.
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the government and the people had made it clear that the negro is an equal citizen and is entitled to freedom of choice. wherever free men live, their most sacred request, sacred right, is a freedom of choice. to bypass all prejudice, to live as they want to live, to worship where they want to worship and to go where they want to go. on the other side of this wall are millions of people who are not going anywhere. the communist government that they live under will not let them out. for centuries, walls have been built to keep out invading armies, but this was the first wall in all of recorded history to keep an entire country from fleeing.
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fleeing into west berlin as 3.5 million did before the wall was erected. if the guards with their guns were unsuccessful, it was the barbed wire. if they crossed that, it was the wall. if they reach the top, there was the broken glass. over 100 have been killed trying to cross. in june, 90 succeeded and three were killed. all escape routes were reinforced. the eastern guards had orders to shoot each other if caught one tryied to escape. in areas where windows overlooked west berlin and people at jumped to freedom, the windows had been sealed with bricks.
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the wall separated more than the city. it separated the world. on one side lived people who were free to be christians muslims, buddhists, jews or confucians. on the other side lived of people whose expression of religion of any kind was taken away or discouraged. on june 26 a short distance from the wall and overlooking the east, the people of west berlin welcome to visitor, the president of the united states of america. ♪
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president kennedy: thank you.
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there are many people in the world who really don't understand the great issue between the free world and the communist world. let them come to berlin. [cheering] [cheering] there are some who say that communism is the wave of the future. let them come to berlin. [cheering] and there are even a few who say that it is true, that communism
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is an evil system, but it permits us to make economic progress. [speaking german] let them come to berlin. [cheering] freedom has many difficulties. democracy is not perfect. but we have never had to put up a wall ofup to keep our people in to prevent them from leaving us. while the wall is the most obvious and vivid demonstration of the failures of the
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communist system, for all the world to see we take no satisfaction in it. as your mayor has said, it is an offense not only against history, but an offense against humanity. separating families, dividing husbands and wives, brothers and sisters, dividing up people who wished to be joined together. [cheering] freedom is indivisible. when one man is enslaved, all are not free. all free men, wherever they may live, are citizens of berlin. therefore, as a free man, i take
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pride in the words. [speaking german] [cheering]
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narrator: june was over. five cities wrote history in the book of the world. prophets could guess, wise men could warn, but no visionary of june could tell the city that were destined to write their names on future calendars. ♪ >> the c-span cities to her is partnering with our cable affiliates as they travel across the united states. join us in costs communications this weekend as we learn about the history and literary native of omaha nebraska. >> omaha had a reputation in the
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african-american community in omaha and the united states as the city that when you came in if you were black you needed to keep your head down and be aware that you were not going to be served in restaurants and would not be able to stay in hotels. the idea and term of civil rights was not part of the national lexicon at that time. the idea of civil rights was so far removed from the idea of the greater community of omaha or the united eights. they-- united states. they were not the support groups or prior experiences of other groups to challenge racial discrimination and segregation. >> we look back to the union pacific and how the construction of union station helped omaha's economy. >>
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>> union pacific is one of the first railroad companies. it combines several railroad companies to make union pacific. then, they were charge with the transcontinental railroad that would connect the east and west coast. they started here, moving west. central pacific started on the west coast and was moving east. they met up in omaha. that is what propels us even farther. we become that point of moving west, one of the gateways to the west. see all of our programs from omaha today at noon eastern. >> next, a journalist and two


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